Battery Q and A

Q.  How does the ZEN cell work?
A.  We can't yet disclose the design and operation of the ZEN cell until we complete our
design and are assured of the status of our intellectual property.  The ZEN cell uses both
novel battery chemistry and novel battery design.   

Q.  How has
Electrochimica invented the super battery?  Why haven't big organizations with
their many scientists and technicians invented it before?
Electrochimica's engineers invented the ZEN cell by working differently from other
battery developers.  We start from the requirement of manufacturability so that, when we
develop an appropriate chemistry, we are assured of a buildable and economical battery.  
This approach has led to the ZEN cell architecture.

Q.  How much power can be stored in batteries?  Is it enough to compete with
gasoline/diesel powered cars?
A.  Yes.  Widely studied experimental cells such as the lithium-chlorine, lithium-iron sulfide  
and sodium-sulfur have theoretical energy storage densities up to 1000 Wh/kg (450 Wh/lb).  
This is about four times that needed for a high-performance electric vehicle.  ZEN cells are
similar in energy to these highly-studied battery technologies.

Q.  Why haven't these other batteries been made available to us?
A.  Reducing their technologies to a safe and economical commercial package has been the
primary difficulty.  Batteries made from these cells must provide both energy (for range) and
power (for acceleration), and must be provided in a small, rugged and transportable
package.  The ZEN cell architecture enables commercial application of highly-energetic
battery technology.

Q.  Can batteries based on the ZEN cell be used in hybrid gas-electric cars?
A.  Yes and No!.  Some hybrids currently use small, high-voltage batteries with the energy of
 two common car batteries.  A hybrid car using ZEN batteries will be designed specifically
with the capabilities of ZEN technology in mind to take advantage of this revolutionary
advance.    This design will include larger range capability for the electric drive in a
lower-voltage package.

Q.  Can the ZEN cell be used in my laptop computer?
A.  No.  The ZEN cell operates at elevated temperature so it can provide the high power
needed for high performance power storage.   There is a minimum size and power for which
Electrochimica's ZEN cell batteries are applicable.

Q.  Are improvements above the performance of the ZEN battery forthcoming?
A.  Yes.  Development will improve the performance of the ZEN battery.  We expect
improvements in energy density, simplicity and storage lifetime.  Cells with different
chemistry based on the same manufacturing concepts may enable batteries with specific
energies of over 320 watt-hours/kg (145 Wh/lb), but at higher cost.  

Q.  Can ZEN batteries be used on aircraft or spacecraft.
A.  Yes and no!  The design philosophy for ZEN batteries has similarities to that for aircraft
and spacecraft components, namely, a intensive effort to decrease weight.  This approach is
"the prime directive" of applications for all-electric automobiles - and for spacecraft.  
Electrochimica does not envision immediate applications for alta-terrestrial or
extra-terrestrial missions.

Q.  What if I want to go farther than a single ZEN-B charge will carry me?
A.  We at
Electrochimica are not trying to solve all issues of all-electric vehicles at the
outset.  Several options will be available for extended range driving including battery
exchange.  High-performance driving at half the cost of fossil-fueled vehicles will enable
these options.
Electrochimica Power Storage Systems
178 Vista Circle Drive
Sierra Madre, CA  91024-1439
San Gabriel Mission
Copyright 2009 Electrochimica Laboratories LLC
Serious Questions, and Our Answers
San Gabriel Mission